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GMT ikora ite, byagenze bite ngo ibe isaha ngengamasaha ?

Yanditswe na Muhonzire Sylvine
Kuya 11 Nzeri 2021 saa 04:59
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Ni kenshi uzabona ku isaha iri bubereho imikino runaka mpuzamahanga cyangwa inama zitandukanye bongeraho ‘GMT’, ugasanga wenda banditse ko u Bufaransa buzakina n’u Bwongereza kuwa Gatanu saa 14:00 GMT, ugahita umenya ko uwo mukino uzaba saa kumi z’umugoroba ku isaha yo mu Rwanda.

Iyi saha iyaba itarashyizweho ngo Isi yose iyigendereho birashoboka ko wari kuva mu gitondo ucanye televiziyo yawe kugeza nimugoroba utegereje igihe uyu mukino uri bubere kuko amasaha y’i Burayi atandukanye n’ayo mu Rwanda.

GMT [Greenwich Mean Time] yemejwe nk’isaha ngengamasaha mu myaka 137 ishize mu nama mpuzamahanga ya méridien yabereye i Washington muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika mu Ukwakira 1884. Yigaga ku kibazo cy’isaha cyari gikomeje kuba ingorabahizi ku bakoreshaga gari ya moshi bava mu gihugu kimwe bajya mu kindi.

Muri iyo myaka buri gace kakoreshaga isaha yako bagendeye ku zuba, naho mu bihugu nk’u Bwongereza, u Bufaransa cyangwa u Budage bagakoreshaga isaha ngengamasaha yabo ku buryo byari bigoranye ko umuntu uri mu Bufaransa amenya isaha ari bubonereho Gari ya moshi iturutse mu Budage, gusa byose biza gukemurwa no kwemeza GMT yo mu Bwongereza.

Kuki hemejwe isaha ngengamasaha yo mu Bwongereza?

Muri icyo gihe Greenwich Mean Time niyo yakoreshwaga hafi mu bice byose byo mu Bwongereza nk’isaha ngengamasaha, ndetse n’amasosiyete menshi ya gari ya moshi yari yarayemeje nk’isaha izajya igenderwaho mu ngendo zayo.

Nyuma yaje kwemezwa n’ibihugu 23 muri 26 byari byitabiriye ya nama yabereye muri Amerika nk’isaha ngengamasaha izajya ikoreshwa ku Isi hose kubera ukuntu yari imaze kwamamara, benshi mu bakora ubucuruzi mpuzamahanga ariyo bakoresha ndetse na Amerika yari yarayemeje nk’isaha izajya igenga amasaha yo muri icyo gihugu.

Ibi byose byagiyeho kubera géographie [ubumenyi bw’Isi].

Ubusanzwe Isi imeze nk’uruziga, abahanga mu by’ubumenyi bw’Isi bagiye bayishyiraho ibirango bitandukanye kugira ngo abantu bayituyeho babashe kumenya aho bari cyangwa bajya mu gihe bashaka kujya mu kindi gihugu batazi cyangwa mu gihe bari mu nyanja. Ibyo birango babyita Longitude na Latitude.

Longitude ni imirongo ihagaze ariko izengurutse Isi [nk’uko wafata urudodo ukaruzengurutsa umupira ariko mu buryo buhagaze] ivuye ku gasongero ikagera mu ndiba y’Isi, ku buryo umurongo wo hagati ugabanyamo Isi ibice bibiri, igice cy’Uburengerazuba n’icy’ Iburasirazuba ukaba warahawe izina rya ‘Premier Méridien’, aho u Rwanda rubarizwa mu cy’uburasirazuba bw’Isi.

Latitude yo ni imirongo itambitse nayo izengurutse isi, aho umurongo wo hagati witwa ‘equateur’. Benshi barawuzi. Uyu murongo uzwiho kugabanya Isi mo kabiri igice cy’Amajyaruguru n’icy’Amajyepfo.

Iyi mirongo ya ‘Longitute na Latitude’ igira icyo wakwita nk’amazina ayiranga ariko aya mazina ni imibare ifite dogere selisiyusi. Aho umurongo wo hagati uba ari dogere selisiyusi Zeru [00], ni ukuvuga ko ‘Equateur’ na ‘Premier Méridien’ byose byitwa 00.

Umurongo wa mbere ukurikira Equateur mu majyaruguru witwa 150, uwa kabiri ukaba 300 gutyo gutyo birutanwaho dogere selisiyusi 15 kugeza ku gasongero k’Isi. Imirongo yo hepfo ya Equateur nayo bikaba uko ariko yo yiyongeraho akamenyetso ko gukuramo, aho umurongo wa mbere munsi ya Eqateur uba ari -150, uwa kabiri ukaba -300, gutyo gutyo kugeza ku ndiba y’Isi.

Kuri Premier Méridien naho ni uko bimeze aho umurongo wa mbere uyikurikira iburyo, ni ukuvuga mu Burasirazuba uba ufite 150 uwa kabiri ukagira 300 gutyo gutyo birutanwaho dogere selisiyusi 15 naho imirongo y’ibumoso [mu Burengerazuba] ikaba iriho akamenyetso ko gukuramo aho uwa mbere ari -150, uwa kabiri -300 gutyo gutyo.

Iyi Premier méridien, wa murongo wo hagati y’Isi witwa 00 [Longitude 00], ica mu Bwongereza, u Bufaransa, u Budage, Algeria, Mali, Burkina Faso, Togo, Ghana na Antarctica.

GMT nk’isaha yari imaze kumenyekana, yatumye umurongo wa longitude yari irimo ugirwa uw’ingenzi uhindurwa Premier méridien [Longitude 00] ukajya ugenderwaho mu kugena ibyerekezo by’Isi, ndetse n’iy’isaha igirwa mpuzamahanga yifashishwa mu kugena igihe ku masaha y’Isi, aho gira amasaha 24 uhereye saa sita z’ijoro.

Uko GMT ikora

Uramutse urebeye kuri ya mirongo ihagaze ku ikarita y’Isi [longitude] ushobora kumenya isaha y’igihugu runaka ugendeye ku murongo wo hagati ‘Premier Méridien’ na GMT.

Kuva kuri Premier Méridien ujya ku murongo wa mbere uyikurikira iburyo [Uburasirazuba] wa 150 hiyongeraho isaha imwe ku ya GMT, wajya ku murongo wa kabiri wa 300 hakiyongeraho amasaha abiri ku isaha ya GMT gutyo gutyo, naho ku murongo w’ibumoso [Iburengerazuba] wa -150 havaho isaha imwe ku isaha ya GMT, ku murongo wa kabiri wa Longitude -300 hakavaho amasaha abiri ku ya GMT, gutyo gutyo.

U Rwanda ruri hafi y’umurongo wa kabiri uvuye kuri Premier méridien Iburasirazuba [longitude 300]. Aho ruri kuri dogere selisiyusi 29.8739. Bivuze ko isaha yo mu Rwanda iri imbere ho amasaha abiri ku ya GMT. Niba i Londres ari saa Moya z’igitondo i Kigali haba ari saa tatu z’igitondo.

GMT iherereye ku nyubako ya Royal Observatory i Greenwich mu mujyi wa Londres mu Bwongereza, yabayeho bwa mbere mu kinyejana cya 17 ubwo umuhanga mu by’ubumenyi bw’Isi [Astronomer] John Flamsteed yazanaga uburyo bushya bwo kubara isaha bivuye ku kugendera ku zuba, gusa GMT mbere yakoreshwaga gusa n’abahanga mu bya siyansi nyuma iza kugirwa mpuzamahanga.


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