‘Divide and Rule’, Ihame rya politiki ryakoreshejwe n’abakoloni mu kwigarurira Afurika

Yanditswe na David Eugène Marshall
Kuya 13 Gashyantare 2018 saa 10:54
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Ubusanzwe bivugwa kenshi ko politiki ari umukino utoroshye kandi ukinwa na bose. Uko byagenda kose, nta muntu n’umwe ku isi wakwihanukira ngo avuge ko ntaho ajya ahurira na politiki n’ibiyikorerwamo.

Politiki iri mu matora, mu bushabitsi, mu bubanyi n’amahanga, mu madini n’ahandi.

Imwe mu maturufu ikunze kwifashishwa muri uwo mukino izwi nka “Divide and Rule Methodology”. Iyi igamije gucamo abantu ibice ngo kubategeka byorohe.

Ni uburyo bwakunze gukoreshwa n’abami n’ibikomangoma bakomeye ku isi ndetse abahanga benshi banemeza ko ari yo ntwaro abakoloni bakoresheje mu kubasha kwigarurira ibihugu bitandukanye, na n’ubu kandi hamwe na hamwe buracyakoreshwa.

Iyo imbunda zahoshaga, abakoloni bahitaga bashaka uburyo bwose batatanya abenegihugu babacamo ibice ndetse iri hame riri mu yakoreshejwe n’Ababiligi mu Karere ka Afurika y’Ibiyaga Bigari, mu Rwanda no mu Burundi by’umwihariko.

Ababiligi basanze Abarundi n’Abanyarwanda bari mu bihugu bifite uburyo bw’imiyoborere bukomeye, uhereye ku mibanire y’abantu hagati yabo, ubucamanza bwa rubanda, umutekano n’ibindi, byatumye batekereza ko batabatejemo amacakubiri bitari kuborohera kubategeka.

‘Divide and Rule’ yageze mu Karere k’Ibiyaga bigari isya itanzitse

Mu Rwanda

Iri hame ryo gucamo ibice abaturage riri mu byatumye ababyirukaga mu gihe cy’ubukoroni bigishwa ko barimo amoko y’Abahutu n’Abatutsi ndetse n’Abatwa.

Ubutegetsi bwa MRND na bwo aho buhirikiye Repubulika ya mbere mu Rwanda, bwijeje abaturage ko bubazaniye Ubumwe, Amahoro ndetse n’Amajyambere.

Ibi ariko byari amagambo gusa, kuko kurema ibice mu banyarwanda byarakomeje, birakorwa mu mashuri, birakorwa ku babaga bashaka kwinjizwa mu Ngabo z’Igihugu, indangamuntu zirimo ibyitwaga amoko icyo gihe, kugeza n’aho amacakubiri yigishwaga yagejeje igihugu kuri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994.

Ubusanzwe mbere iby’Abahutu n’Abatutsi byareberwaga mu cyiciro cy’imibereho [Classe Sociale] mu gihe cy’Ubwami ariko Abakoloni babihindura amoko.

Mu Burundi

Mu Burundi ho iri somo ry’Abakoloni risa n’iryamizwe bunguri kuko na n’ubu riri mu mategeko asanzwe no mu Masezerano ya Arusha, yashyizweho umukono mu 2000.

Abahutu ngo bagomba kugira 60%, naho Abatutsi bakagira 40% mu nzego z’ubutegetsi. Abatwa bo nta n’ujya abibuka muri icyo gihugu. Ubwo kandi hari n’abandi biyita Abaganwa bahora bahirimbanira kuba ubwoko bwa kane, bo ngo bari mu bwoko bwaturukagamo abami mu Burundi.

Steff Vendeginste wo muri Kaminuza ya Anvers mu Bubiligi, mu Gitabo cye yise “Théorie Consociative et Partage du Pouvoir au Burundi”, mu Iriburiro ryacyo hari aho asa n’ushimagiza ubu buryo u Burundi butegetswemo, anavuga ko ari nabwo bukoreshwa mu bihugu biteye imbere nk’u Buholandi, u Bubiligi n’ahandi ariko hacye ku isi.

Servillien Sebasoni, Umunyarwanda ugaragara muri iki gitabo, yabwiye uyu mwanditsi ko byari kuba byiza iyo mu Burundi bibanda ku kugabana ubutegetsi hashingiwe ku bwenegihugu gusa nk’uko bimeze mu Rwanda, aho gucamo abaturage ibice.

Ubusanzwe haba mu Rwanda cyangwa mu Burundi, hakurikijwe ibisobanuro bw’icyo abahanga bita ubwoko, ntihakabaye hari abita abandi ubwoko hagati y’abaturage batuye ibi bihugu uko ari bibiri, kuko basangiye imico n’ururimi byaba muri gakondo no mu bigezweho mu iki gihe.

Ubusanzwe bivugwa ko ubwoko ari “Abantu bari hamwe bahuje ibibaranga ahanini bishingira ku kuvuga ururimi rumwe ndetse n’umuco umwe”, bibaye ibyo rero mu Rwanda haba hari ubwoko Nyarwanda, kimwe no mu Burundi, kuko basangiye byose byavuzwe haruguru.

Muri Kenya

Abongereza bari mu bateje imbere ubu buryo bwo gutegeka abantu ubanje kubacamo ibice. Kuri ubu, ibibera muri Kenya ni urugero rw’ingaruka zazanywe n’iri hame rya “Divide and Rule”.

Bamwe biyumva ko ari aba Kikuyu mbere y’uko ari abanya-Kenya. Abandi bakiyumvamo ko ari Aba-Kalenjin cyangwa aba- Luo kuruta ko basenyera umugozi umwe nk’abaturage basangiye igihugu cya Kenya. Na n’ubu ruhora rugeretse.

Muri Sudani y’Epfo

Ubu rurambikanye hagati y’aba Nuer n’abo mu bwoko bw’aba Dinka. Ubusanzwe ngo aya moko yari afitanye ibisanira bya hafi, kandi ari mu moko yagize ishyingiranwa hagati yayo, riri hejuru hafi kurusha andi moko yo muri Afurika. Nyamara kugeza ubu ntibacana uwaka.

Aba Dinkas ari na bo Perezida Salva Mayardit Kiir akomokamo bashinjwa n’aba Nuer bakomokwamo na Riek Machar utavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi gushaka kwikubira ubutegetsi.

Muri Nigeria

Muri iki gihugu ho usanga abaturage baragabanyijwemo n’abakoloni amatsinda manini manini bakoresheje amadini n’indimi.

Ku baturage basaga miliyoni 160 batuye Nigeria, imibare dukesha BBC yo mu 2015 yerekana ko 29% ari abo mu bavuga ururimi rw’igi Haussa, biganjemo abo mu idini ya Islam babarizwa mu majyaruguru ya Nigeria.

Abandi bagera kuri 21% bo ngo bavuga iki Yoruba, barimo Abakirisitu ukabasanga mu gice gishyira amajyepfo no hagati.Igbo na Ijaw nabo ni benshi.

Ingaruka za “Divide and Rule” ku mugabane wa Afurika umuntu ntiyazirondora, gusa ikigaragara ni uko no kuzigobotora bikiri kure nk’ukwezi, mu gihe hari ibihugu byazigize nk’umuco.


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