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Ubugambanyi Umwami Musinga yakorewe n’abe kugeza ubwo bamushinja ubutinganyi

Yanditswe na Ferdinand Maniraguha
Kuya 13 Ugushyingo 2021 saa 08:06
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Imyaka 90 irashize Umwami Yuhi Musinga akuwe ku butegetsi ku ngufu n’Ababiligi ku bufatanye n’Abapadiri bera, bamushinja gusubiza inyuma iterambere no kwitambika imigambi yabo.

Mu gitondo cyo kuwa 12 Ugushyingo 1931, Charles Voisin wari Guverineri wa Ruanda-Urundi yasanze Umwami Musinga iwe i Nyanza, amuha amasaha 48 yo kuzinga utwangushye akava mu gihugu, Kalinga n’ibindi birango by’igihugu asabwa kubishyikiriza Ababiligi bari barahawe u Rwanda nk’indagizo ya Loni.

Ryabaye iherezo ry’ubutegetsi yari amazeho imyaka 36, ryahuriranye n’ibihe bibi kuva mu ntangiriro ubwo nyina Kanjogera yahirikaga ubutegetsi bwa Mibambwe IV Rutalindwa.

Hari hashize imyaka myinshi Musinga yiteguye ko Ababiligi bashobora kumukuraho isaha n’isaha guhera mu 1916 ubwo Abadage batsindwaga intambara ya mbere y’Isi bakava mu Rwanda.

Umwami Musinga ntiyigeze yiyumvamo Ababiligi kuko icya mbere bakoze bakihagera ari ukumwambura ijambo n’ububasha bwo gukora icyo ashaka. Yarwanyije yivuye inyuma ubukirisitu n’abapadiri bera kuko yabonaga bigira uruhare mu guca umuco nyarwanda n’imigenzo yawo.

Musinga yangishijwe abaturage mu buryo bushoboka, nk’uko biri mu gitabo “Defeat Is the Only Bad News : Rwanda under Musinga’ cya Alison Des Forges. Byageze no mu muryango we kugeza ubwo ucitsemo ibice, umuhimbira ibirego birimo n’ubutinganyi.

Abana ba Musinga bamushinje ubutinganyi

Musinga yari afite abagore benshi yabyayeho abana batandukanye ariko ku isonga hari hari Nyirakabuga babyaranye abana batatu barimo igikomangoma Rwigemera na Rudacyahwa, Kanyange bari barabyaranye Munonozi na Kankazi wabyaye Rudahigwa.

Abazungu bamaze kubona ko Musinga atabiyumvamo n’ibikorwa byabo, bakoze ibishoboka byose binjirira umuryango we bawucamo ibice, kugira ngo babone umwizerwa bashobora kuzasimbuza se.

Des Forges agaragaza ko Munonozi na Rudacyahwa aribo bana Musinga yifuzagamo uzamusimbura ku butegetsi. Yanabakurikiraniye hafi, mu gihe abandi birukiraga mu mashuri y’abapadiri no kwiga gatigisimu, yari yarabujije abana be kujya muri ayo mashuri ndetse aca iteka ko uzabirengaho atazaba akiri uwe.

Rudacyahwa, Munonozi na Rudahigwa bize i Nyanza mu ishuri risanzwe ridashingiye ku idini kubera urwango Musinga yangaga ubukirisitu.

Ku bw’umwaku, Munonozi na Rudacyahwa baje gupfa bazize mugiga, Musinga yinjira mu gihirahiro cyo guhitamo undi mwana mu bo asigaranye uzamusimbura ku butegetsi.

Rwigemera na Rudahigwa nibo bari basigaye ari bakuru, bafite amahirwe yo kuragwa ingoma ariko Musinga agakunda Rudahigwa cyane kuko yamwubahaga, atarize gatigisimu. Rwigemera we yari yaranganye na se kuko yari yarayobotse inyigisho z’abapadiri kandi akaba inshuti y’abazungu, agasuzugura imigenzo gakondo.

Umuryango wa Musinga wacitsemo ibice mu minsi ya nyuma y'ubutegetsi bwe

Guhera mu myaka ya 1920, Ababiligi barushijeho kugaragaza ko badashaka Musinga, gusa bakagira ikibazo cyo kumenya uwo bazamusimbuza. Mu miryango y’ibwami no mu bakomeye ibwami, bari barabibonye, batangira urugamba rwo gushakisha umukandida bazajya inyuma, bakamukundisha abazungu.

Kubera ko Rwigemera na nyina Nyirakabuga n’abari babashyigikiye, babonaga ko abazungu ari bo basigaranye imbaraga, barayobotse ku mugaragaro, baharanira ko Rwigemera ari we bazaraga ubutegetsi.

Batangiye gushaka ibirego bashinja Musinga, ngo bigure ku bazungu. Abana ba Nyirakabuga ngo babwiye abazungu ko se ari umushurashuzi kugeza ubwo ashaka kuryamana n’abakobwa be. Bongeyeho ko ari n’umutinganyi.

Ikirego cy’ubutinganyi muri ibyo bihe cyari gikomeye, kuko cyari gutuma abapadiri bahaguruka bakamusabira gukurwa ku butegetsi kubera iyo migenzereze ifatwa nk’ikizira ku bakirisitu.

Bashingiraga kandi ku byari biherutse kubera mu Buganda, aho abahowe Imana bari baherutse kwicwa urw’agashinyaguro n’umwami Kabaka nyuma yo kwamagana ubutinganyi.

Muri Kamena 1886, Kabaka wa Buganda yicishije abagatolika 32 urw’agashinyaguro barimo abagabo bazira ko bamwe banze kuryamana na we.

Izo nkuru zigishijwe abanyarwanda bayobotse ubukirisitu, Abapadiri bera babyerekana nk’urugero rwiza bakwiriye gukurikiza.

Igitabo cya Des Forges ntikigaragaza ukuri k’ubutinganyi bwavugwaga kuri Musinga, icyakora kivuga ko n’iyo yaba yarabikoraga atabikoraga ku karubanda ku buryo buri wese yabimenya. Ikindi ni uko ngo atashoboraga kuryamana n’abana be bwite kuko mu muco nyarwanda byari ikizira.

Ibi birego birimo ni icy’uko Musinga ngo yashatse kwica Rwigemera, Ababiligi barabyakiriye. Kugira ngo byemerwe, hari hakenewe ibimenyetso kuko guhindura ubutegetsi mu gihugu baragijwe na Loni, byagombaga ibimenyetso simusiga by’amakosa umuyobozi yakoze.

Iperereza ry’Ababiligi ryarakozwe, risozwa nta kimenyetso ribonye, ibirego barabireka bashaka ibindi.

Igitabo ‘Defeat Is the Only Bad News’ cyerekana ko Musinga yakomeje gucibwa intege ku buryo mu mpera za 1929, ubwami bwasaga n’ubwavuye mu maboko ye.

Umwami Musinga yanyuze mu bihe bigoye kugeza ubwo umuryango we umugambanira ku bazungu

Mu 1930 hafashwe umwanzuro ntakuka wo kuvana Musinga ku butegetsi, Guverineri Charles Voisin abiganiraho na Musenyeri Léon Classe. Impamvu ni uko Classe yari akuriye Kiliziya yakoranaga bya hafi n’abaturage, kandi yari amaze igihe kinini aba mu Rwanda.

Classe yabwiye Voisin ko Rudahigwa ari we wabasha gusimbura se kuko yize amashuri, bivuze ko yari azi imikorere y’abazungu. Ikindi ni uko yari umwizerwa kuri se Musinga, bivuze ko abakunda Umwami bari kumwibonamo cyane kurusha Rwigemera.

Classe na Voisin banateguye inyandiko y’uburyo bazagaragaza amakosa Musinga amaze igihe akora. Iyo nyandiko yari igamije kwemeza Leta y’u Bubiligi impamvu Musinga agomba kuvaho. Ibirego barabishatse, byemerwa rwagati mu 1931.

Tariki 12 Ugushyingo 1931 niyo tariki yemejwe nk’iyo gukuraho Musinga ariko Ababiligi bagira ubwoba ko bamwe mu bamushyigikiye cyane cyane Abatware, bashobora guteza imvururu.

Bateguye inama mpimbano y’abatware yagombaga kubera i Kigali, Abatware babwirwa ko Guverineri ashaka kubagezaho imigambi mishya igamije guteza imbere ubukungu bw’u Rwanda.

Mu gihe Abatware bari bari mu nzira bagana i Kigali, Guverineri Voisin yagiye kumenyesha Musinga ko atakiri umwami w’u Rwanda, amuha amasaha 48 yo kuba yavuye i Nyanza akimukira i Kamembe.

Guverineri yamusabye gufata ibirango by’ibwami birimo n’inganji Kalinga akabyoherereza abategetsi b’Ababiligi, Musinga arabyanga, Ababiligi bajya kubyijyanira nijoro.

Mu gitondo cyo kuwa 14 Ugushyingo Musinga yafashe inzira n’umuryango we n’abaja be basaga 700, berekeza i Kamembe mu rugendo rwafashe icyumweru.

Ba bashefu bagiye i Kigali guhura na Guverineri, baramutegereje baraheba, nyuma baza kubwirwa ko gahunda yahindutse, Guverineri baramusanga i Nyanza.

Baraboneje basubira i Nyanza, ubutegetsi bw’Ababiligi bubacungira hafi ngo hataza kugira abamenya ibyabaye.

Bageze i Nyanza ku wa 16 Ugushyingo, Musinga amaze iminsi ibiri ahavuye, bahagera hateguwe ibirori byo kwimika Rudahigwa.

Umwami mushya. Ni imihango ubundi yakorwaga n’abiru ariko kuri iyi nshuro yimitswe na Guverineri Voisin mu gihe izina Mutara ryavuzwe na Musenyeri Classe.

Umwami Musinga ubwo yasuhuzaga Igikomangomakazi Elena d'Aosta cyo mu Butaliyani
Ubwo Musinga yari ashagawe mu ngoro ye i Nyanza

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